Monday, July 7, 2014

Kalamansi - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Other scientific names
Citrus microcarpa
Citrus mitis Blanco
Citrus medica
Citrofortunella microcarpa
Citrus madurensis Lour.

Common names
Chinese Orange
Aldonisis (Tag.)
Calamonding (P. Bis.)
Calamunding (Pamp.)
Chinese orange (Engl.)
Kalamondin (Tag.)
Calamondin orange (Engl.)
Panama orange (Engl.)


 Botany
A smooth and slightly spiny plant, growing to a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaflets are elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 4 to 8 cm long. Petioles are narrowly and scarcely winged, about a cm long. Flowers are axillary, solitary, rarely in pairs, white, and short-stalked. Fruit is yellow when ripe, nearly spherical, 2 to 3.5 cm diameter, 6- to 7-celled, and thin-skinned. The skin or peel is green to yellowish green or yellow, loosely adhering to the flesh. The flesh contains a few light orange seeds.

Distribution
Widely cultivated in the Philippines. The species is native to the Philippines.

Constituents
Fruit: volatile oil, 0.9 to 1.06%.
Rind: Aldehydes; sesquiterpenes; beta-pinene; linalool; linalyl acetate; tannin; glucoside; cyanogenetic substances.

Properties
Antiseptic, antiphlogistic, carminative, deodorant, refrigerant.

Parts used and preparation
Fruit

Uses
Culinary and nutrition
It is fairly sour and is a popular seasoning for many local food.
Also used for making juice and marmalade.
Kalamnsi-ade a source of vitamin C
Condiment: Use rind and fruit.
Folkloric
Aromatic bath: Mix juice with gogo.
Cough, colds and sore throat: Drink warm kalamansi-ade.
Nausea and fainting: Squeeze rind near nostril to inhale.
Applied externally for itching.
In Malaysia, used as an antidote for poison.
Poultice of pandanus leaves, mixed with salt and juice of citrus microcarpa, for abscesses.
In Malaya, combined with pepper to help expel phlegm.
Root used at childbirth.

Others
Aromatic
Bleaching agent: Cut fruit and apply directly on freckles.
Juice is used to remove ink stains from clothes and washing women's hair.
Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo, for itching and to stimulate hair growth. (Link)

Studies
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms: A study on the antibacterial activity of 9 tropical plants against 12 clinical and pathogenic bacterial strains including Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, Vibro parahemolytics, Salmonella and Streptococcus sp. showed activity against one or more species of bacteria. Citrus microcarpa was one of the most active.
• Antimicrobial / Aquaculture: Study isolated 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid from the crude extract of C microcarpa. The study results suggest that both the crude extract and its bioactive component might have potential as an antimicrobial in aquaculture use.
• Antianxiety / Antidepressive: Study provides evidence that the smelling of essential oils of C hystrix and C microcarpa confer anxiolytic effect. It concludes that essential oils of the Citrus family may affect behavior.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Perennial market produce.