Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Kaamatis (Tomato) - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Other scientific name
Lycopersicum esculentum
Solanum lycopersicum 

Common names 
Kamatis (C. Bis., Tag., Bik., Sul., Ig.) 
Kamatis-bundok (Tag.)
Tomato (Engl.) 
Umli (If.) 
Fan qie (Chin.)







Botany
Hairy annual herb.
Leaves are pinnate and alternate, oblong-ovate, 10-40 cm long.
Flowers are yellow, 1 to 1.5 cm long. Fruit, variable in shape; in the cultivated form, rounded and compressed, lobed, 4 -10 cm wide, red when ripe, smooth, fleshy, containing seeds.

Distribution
Found throughout the Philippines in its original form.
Extensively cultivated; grown in gardens and farms as vegetable.

Constituents and properties
• 100 gm of tomato contains: Water 94%, protein 1 gm; fat 0,3%, carbohydrate 4%, fiber 0.6%, vitamin A 1,100 IU, Vit B 0.2mh. vitamin C 23 mg, nicotinic acid 0.6%, pantothenic acid 0.31 mg, vitamin E 0.27 mg, biotin 0.004 mg, malic acid 150 mg, citric acid 390 mg, oxalic acid 7.5 mg, sodium 3 mg, potassium 268 mg, calcium 11 mg, magnesium 11 mg, iron 0.6 mg, copper 0.1 mg, manganese 0.19 mg, phosphorus 27 mg, sulfur 11 mg, chlorine 51 mg.

Uses
Nutritional
It's both fruit and vegetable.
Good source of iron, phosphorus, calcium, vitamins A and B, and excellent source of vitamin C.
Tomatoes are loaded for vitamin C, a potent antioxidant that mops up free radicals.
Tomatoes also contain lycopene, p-coumaric acid and cholorogenic acid, all possibly helpful in reducing cancer risks.
Folkloric
- Pulp and juice are mild aperient.
- Juice used for asthma and bronchitis.

Studies
• Lycopene / Hepatoprotective: Lycopene is considered a better antioxideant than other carotenoids. In a study on acute injury caused by oxidant carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), results showed that tomato juice, with its lycopene and ascorbic acid content, exhibited a strong effect on oxidative damage of CCl4 in rat liver.
• Lectins / Mucosal Immunogen: Lycospersicum esculentum lectins studies suggest it to be a potent mucosal immunogen, enhancing immune responses to antigens.
• Tomatoes in Gene Therapy: Jure Piskur et al from the Lund University, published study results suggesting the tomato gene could be of value in future treatment of brain tumors.
• Antimutagenic / Anticlastogenic: Study evaluated the combined effect of tomato and garlic against DBMA-induced genetic damage and oxidative stress in mijce. Results suggest a broad spectrum of antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects may b e achieved through a combination of functional foods.

In The News
• Fruitflow / Antithrombotic / Aspirin Alternative: Study claims that Fruitflow, a tomato extract, can reduce the risk of blood clots, which can trigger heart attacks and strokes. Results of a human clinical trial compares Fruitflow with aspirin, with its ability to reduce platelet aggregation by 28% through three different biologic pathways (vs aspirin, 60% reduction, in a single pathway).

Luya (Ginger)- Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Scientific name: Zingiber officinale Roscoe
English: Ginger
Tagalog: Luya








Luya is a root stock grown in many places in the Philippines, and is very common on Mt. Banahaw. Luya is one of our four “power herbs” having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal herb. It is commonly used in treating colds and flu in children, because of it effectiveness and safety in large doses. Japanese researchers have found that Luya causes the heart to beat more strongly and slowly and that blood pressure lowers by 10 to 15 points after Luya is ingested. Indian researchers have found that Luya is also effective in removing cholesterol from both the blood and liver.
Luya is also reported to sooth the stomach, helping digestion. It is reported to relive gas, flatulence, and cramping, and facilitate the breakdown of food in the stomach and the absorption of food in the small intestine. A number of researchers have found that Luya is highly effective in alleviating motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting, being more effective than Dramamine. Luya’s various isolated components also possess anti-inflammatory, antiviral, diuretic, antifungal, antiseptic, and antibiotic properties. It has been found effective in the treatment of heart disease, migraines, stroke, coughs, dizziness, fever, kidney stones, and viral infections.

Kalamansi - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Other scientific names
Citrus microcarpa
Citrus mitis Blanco
Citrus medica
Citrofortunella microcarpa
Citrus madurensis Lour.

Common names
Chinese Orange
Aldonisis (Tag.)
Calamonding (P. Bis.)
Calamunding (Pamp.)
Chinese orange (Engl.)
Kalamondin (Tag.)
Calamondin orange (Engl.)
Panama orange (Engl.)


 Botany
A smooth and slightly spiny plant, growing to a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaflets are elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 4 to 8 cm long. Petioles are narrowly and scarcely winged, about a cm long. Flowers are axillary, solitary, rarely in pairs, white, and short-stalked. Fruit is yellow when ripe, nearly spherical, 2 to 3.5 cm diameter, 6- to 7-celled, and thin-skinned. The skin or peel is green to yellowish green or yellow, loosely adhering to the flesh. The flesh contains a few light orange seeds.

Distribution
Widely cultivated in the Philippines. The species is native to the Philippines.

Constituents
Fruit: volatile oil, 0.9 to 1.06%.
Rind: Aldehydes; sesquiterpenes; beta-pinene; linalool; linalyl acetate; tannin; glucoside; cyanogenetic substances.

Properties
Antiseptic, antiphlogistic, carminative, deodorant, refrigerant.

Parts used and preparation
Fruit

Uses
Culinary and nutrition
It is fairly sour and is a popular seasoning for many local food.
Also used for making juice and marmalade.
Kalamnsi-ade a source of vitamin C
Condiment: Use rind and fruit.
Folkloric
Aromatic bath: Mix juice with gogo.
Cough, colds and sore throat: Drink warm kalamansi-ade.
Nausea and fainting: Squeeze rind near nostril to inhale.
Applied externally for itching.
In Malaysia, used as an antidote for poison.
Poultice of pandanus leaves, mixed with salt and juice of citrus microcarpa, for abscesses.
In Malaya, combined with pepper to help expel phlegm.
Root used at childbirth.

Others
Aromatic
Bleaching agent: Cut fruit and apply directly on freckles.
Juice is used to remove ink stains from clothes and washing women's hair.
Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo, for itching and to stimulate hair growth. (Link)

Studies
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms: A study on the antibacterial activity of 9 tropical plants against 12 clinical and pathogenic bacterial strains including Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, Vibro parahemolytics, Salmonella and Streptococcus sp. showed activity against one or more species of bacteria. Citrus microcarpa was one of the most active.
• Antimicrobial / Aquaculture: Study isolated 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid from the crude extract of C microcarpa. The study results suggest that both the crude extract and its bioactive component might have potential as an antimicrobial in aquaculture use.
• Antianxiety / Antidepressive: Study provides evidence that the smelling of essential oils of C hystrix and C microcarpa confer anxiolytic effect. It concludes that essential oils of the Citrus family may affect behavior.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Perennial market produce.



Sambong - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Scientific name: Blumea balsamifera
English: Elumea, Ngaicamphor
Tagalog: Sambong


 Sambong is found throughout the Philippines, and grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. Doctors in the Philippines prescribe Sambong for the dissolution of kidney stones. The leaves of Sambong are used as a tea in the Philippines, and as a cure for colds. It is also said to have antidiarrhetic and antigastralgic properties. It is also used as an expectorant. It is given for worms and dysentery. It is one of the most common used medicinal herbs in the Philippines.

Kantutay - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Scientific name: Lantana camara L.
English: Coronitas
Tagalog: Lantana, Kantutay


 A gregarious, erect or half-climbing, somewhat hairy aromatic shrub; when erect, usually 1.2 m high and when scandent, twice as high. Branches four-sided with recurved prickles.

  • Leaves: ovate, 5 to 9 cm long, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base and toothed in the margins.
  • Flowers: pink, orange, yellow, white, lilac and other shades, according to the variety and borne in stalked heads which are 2 to 3.5 cm in diameter. Calyx small. Corolla tube slender, the limb spreading, 6 to 7 mm wide, and divided into unequal lobes. Stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included. Ovary 2-celled, 2-ovuled.
  • Fruits: Sweet tasting drupaceous fruit; purple or black, fleshy ovoid, and about 5 mm long.
Distribution
A gregarious weed in the Philippines. Certain varieties are cultivated as a trimmed hedge either alone or with other shrubs.
Constituents
Leaves: volatile oil, 0.2%.
Dried flowers: volatile oil, 0.07% – caryophyllene-like bicyclic terpene, 80%, l,a-phellandrene, 10-12%.
Bark: Lantanine, 0.08%.
Parts utilized and preparation
  • Leaves, bark, roots, flowering tops.
  • May be collected throughout the year.
  • Sun-dry.
Characteristics and Pharmacological Effects
  • Root: sweet and bitter tasting, refrigerant, antifebrile.
  • Leaves: minty tasting, cooling natured, antiphlogistic, anti-dermatoses.
  • Flowers: sweet tasting, mildly cooling, hemostatic.
Medicinal uses
  • Influenza, cough, mumps, incessant high fever, malaria, cervical lymph node tuberculosis: use 30 to 60 gms dried roots or 60 to 120 gms fresh roots in decoction.
  • Fever: Take decoction of bark or infusion of leaves and flowering tops as tea.
  • Hemoptysis, pulmonary tuberculosis: use 6 to 9 gms dried flowers in decoction.
  • Dermatitis, eczema, pruritus: use fresh stems and leaves.
  • Rheumatism – Spread oil on leaves, warm over low flame and apply on affected part.
  • Sprains, wounds, contusions: Use pounded fresh leaves applied as poultice.





Akapulko - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Scientific name: Cassia alata L
English: Ringworm bush or shrub
Tagalog: Akapulko


 Akapulko is a shrub that grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. The leaves contain chrysophanic acid. The leaves are reported to be sudorific, diuretic and purgative, being used in the same manner as senna. The leaves are commonly used for ringworm and other skin diseases. The leaves in concoction are also used to treat bronchitis and asthma.

Traditional Uses:
For fungal skin infections: Ring worm, tinea (white spots), athlete’s foot
How to Use:
As anti fungal, apply juice from the pounded leaves on affected areas of the skin. Strong decoction of leaves and flowers for cleansing eczema and other skin itch.
As an ointment: Prepared from the leaves and apply twice a day.
Precaution: apply thinly on affected skin. Improvement will be noticed after 2 to 3 weeks of treatment.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Bunga - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Scientific name: Areca catechu L.
English: Betel-nut Palm
Tagalog: Bunga de China










Betel, common name for a tropical vine (see Pepper), sometimes called betel pepper. In Asia and the East Indies the leaves of the plant, together with a little quicklime, are used to wrap the seed kernel (called betel nut or areca nut) of the betel palm. Chewing this preparation (also called betel) stains the saliva bright red and eventually darkens the teeth. An alkaloid in the nut acts as a stimulant and a tonic.
Scientific classification: The betel belongs to the family Piperaceae. It is classified as Piper betle. The betel nut palm belongs to the family Arecaceae (or Palmae) and is classified as Areca catechu.

Bawang ( Garlic ) - Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Scientific name: Allium sativum Linn 
English: Garlic
Tagalog: Bawangm     
 Bawang is cultivated throughout the Philippines. The Filipino variety of Bawang is very small, and four times more expensive than the imported varieties of bawang found in the markets. The reason for this is the superior quality and pungency of the small tagalog (Filipino) variety. Bawang is one of our four “power herbs” having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal herb. bawang is a diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and stimulant. As an antiseptic, its use has long been recognized. In World War I it was widely employed in the control of suppuration in wounds. The raw juice was expressed, diluted with water, and put on swabs of sterilized Sphagnum moss, which were applied to the wound. Where this treatment was given, it was proved that there were no septic results, and the lives of thousands of men were saved by its use.

Bawang is an invaluable medicine for asthma, hoarseness, coughs, difficulty of breathing, and most other disorders of the lungs, being of particular virtue in chronic bronchitis, on account of its powers of promoting expectoration. The successful treatment of tubercular consumption by bawang has been recorded. The successful treatment of tubercular consumption by bawang has been recorded. In the Philippines, the bulbs are prescribed for high blood pressure. Dr. James Balch, in his book “The Super Anti-Oxidants,” states that garlic acts as a super antioxidant, lowers blood pressure, boosts the immune system, balances blood sugar, prevents heart disease, assists in fat metabolism, and aids in cancer prevention.






Pandakaki-puti – Halamang Gamot / Herbal Medicine

Scientific name: Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir
Tagalog: Pandakaki-puti


 Erect, branched and smooth shrub, 1-3 meters high. Leaves are short-stalked, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 5-12 cms, narrowed at both ends. Inflorescence are axillary and terminal; the flowers are few. Calyx is green, ovoid, and short. Corolla is white, slender-tubed, 1.7 cm long; limb is 2 to 2.5 cm in diameter, composed of five, spreading, falcate, lanceolate lobes. Follicles are red, oblong, 2-4 cm long, and longitudinally ridged.

Distribution
Common in thickets at low altitudes.
Parts utilized
Leaves.
Medicinal uses:
  • Eczema: Boil 3 cups of chopped leaves in one gallon of water for 10 minutes; add 2 gallons of hot water.Also, fry the fresh leaves in oil and apply to itchy skins lesions for symptomatic relief.
  • Wound healing: Leaf juice.
  • Hot Foot Baths: A local immersion bath covering the feet, ankles and legs used for a variety of conditions: To relieve head, chest and pelvic congestion; to stop nosebleeds; to relieve spasms and pains of feet and legs; to induce sweating; to relieve menstrual cramps and headaches.
  • Leaves applied as cataplasm on abdomen to hasten childbirth.
  • Erectile dysfunction: Recent use as “herbal viagra.” Boil 15-25 leaves in 3 glasses of water for 10 minutes; drink the decoction. (Note: Like many of the herbal medicines touted as “herbal viagra,” kampupot use is rural folkloric with no known scientific or pharmacologic basis for its claim.)
  • Decoction of root and bark used for a varitety of stomach and intestinal ailments.
  • The white sap of the stem is applied to thorn injuries and to hasten the surfacing of the thorn fragment.