The Damask rose is the national flower of Iran and has been called the "Flower of the Prophet Mohammad." The use of rose oil dates back to ancient Persia. Petal steam distillation produces rose water and rose oil; 2000 petals yield a mere drop of rose oil. source Many medicinal benefits have been attributed to the rose, from the healing properties, to treatment of respiratory problems to skin health. The genus consists of many species, estimates ranging from thirty to over two hundred.
One of the most extensive genus in the plant kingdom, with some botanical reports of over 4,000 species. A prickly shrub, most grow upright, some are creeping. Flowers are yellow, white, pink or red, solitary or in branched clusters or corymbs at the end of short branches. four to five petals and sepals. Leaves are alternate, pinnnate, usually with five to nine leaflets with a terminal leaflet.
Cultivated in all climates and places.
Flowers and hips.
Chemical constituents and characteristics
- Sudorific, antispasmodic, emetic.
- Petals are astringent, containing quercitrin and volatile oils.
- Also contains a coloring agent and flavor that makes them useful for syrup, eyewashes, tonics.
- Rose-water made from some species (Rosa centifolia) is used as ointment for ophthalmia.
- Infusion or powder used for excessive bleeding.
- The water is soothing to dry skin.
- Infusion of lofwers used for lavage in leukorrhea and blennorrhagia.
- Infusion also used as gargle for laryngitis, stomatitis.
- Decoction of flowers used for phthisis, hemoptysis, diarrhea and dysentery.
- Rose hips commonly used as a source of vitamin C.
- Rosehips are a good source of vitamin C and used for making syrups, jams, jellies, wines and tea blends.
- Rose petals are used in salads, garnishes, pastry decorations, and making rose water.
• Antioxidant: Study concludes dried rose petals may be used for preparing antioxidant-rich caffeine-free beverages. Various flavonoids in rose hips have potent antioxidant action.
• Cox-1 and -2 Activity: In a study to investigate the use of rose hips in the treatment of osteoarthritis, the extracts of rose hip showed good inhibition of both cox-1 and -2.
• Galactolipid / Anti-inflammatory: Study isolated a galactolipid from dried and milled fruits of Rosa canina which showed antiinflammatory activity with inhibitory effects on chemotaxis of human peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro. The presence of the galatolipid in rose hips may explain the antiinflammatory properties of rose hip herbal remedies.
Widely cultivated for its flower and rose-water.